消费贷正在信用卡化


Consumer lending institutions have been coveting credit cards for a long time, and now they get it.

The credit card is a licensed business. The consumer lending institution does not issue the card qualification and cannot issue the card directly. However, it is bundled with the bank's second-class household and the payment institution to realize the credit card of the consumer loan. In the transaction link, the user can open the payment tool directly. The payment of the virtual card (behind the consumer loan) gives the consumer credit card the attributes of the credit card.

Consumer credit is being credit carded, which is both a model change and a direction for industry evolution.

Progressive

In the consumer payment segment, consumer loan demand will be generated. Therefore, the secret of consumer lending has always been infinitely close to the consumer scene, close to the payment link The closer the payment link is, the closer the user demand is, the closer the distance is.

In the early days, consumer financial institutions relied on the offline store model to be close to user needs. Represented by Gitzo, the company sent staff to the 3C stores of large and small. When the consumers took out the wallet payment, the sales manager rushed to the loan marketing. On-site application, that is, ready to use.

Later, the e-commerce platform has its own consumer financial products, online scene copying Gitzo's offline mode is in the payment link, recommending users to use their own staging products, such as ant flower buds, Suning arbitrarily pay, etc. Subsidy strategies such as interest rates quickly capture consumers. The early stage of fun, staged music and other entrepreneurial institutions, in the business logic is also a replica of this model, first set up online 3C shopping scenes, embedded in the payment phase of the phased products, a rapid rise.

However, from the perspective of industry, these two modes have their own limitations: the former mode is very heavy, relying on manpower; the latter is based on its own scenario, if the consumer lending institution has no scenarios, it needs to build a self-built scenario for the loan, with high cost and drainage. Difficult, not meaningful (refer to the credit card mall of each bank, the investment is not small, but the output is not much).

xx该行业继续发展,并出现了两种模式。

路积极走进现场,将产品整合到场景中。用户不会去找我,我会去找用户。

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消费者贷款产品的开放模式需要场景的主动访问,这将导致开发和运营成本。为了提高现场的积极性,消费贷款机构选择在支付率优惠,交易回报等方面做出让步,并与商家合作进行一些无息的分期活动。一些机构还将根据贷款金额给予商家奖励。

需要说明的是,市场主导产品的用户群具有较大的基础,可以给现场带来明显的排水效果,并且场景方面具有热情。在总行削减后,它将签署一些独家协议作为现场获得补贴奖励的前提,并保持中小型消费贷款机构走出困境。

路。

第二个是虚拟信用卡模型。这里的虚拟信用卡不同于银行发行的虚拟信用卡(银行发行的虚拟信用卡基本上是信用卡,但没有物理媒介,它是一串数字,可以绑定到各种支付工具,卡片发行少卡片制作,邮寄这个过程可以在几秒钟内使用,这是移动支付环境下的信用卡模式创新。相反,消费者贷款对银行的第二个开放 - 类家庭,然后基于二等家庭支付支付工具,它像信用卡一样显示在用户。在支付清单。

目前,支付宝和微信都有自己的消费贷款产品。市场通常选择银联云闪存支付作为合作伙伴。比如赵连小金的赵联云支付闪存,立即取消了闪存支付的便利金,邮政金邮费你花云支付等等,都是这种模式。

开通后,用户可以在消费贷款应用中打开支付二维码(消费者贷款与消费者贷款绑定),并在银联渠道完成支付交易;或者在手机支付,看到闪存支付卡躺在那里,进行在线和离线现场支付。

当您打开付款工具时,它会打开一个新的世界。

新天堂

侵入虚拟信用卡的消费者信用似乎只是一小步,但这是一大步。这一突破既是物质的,也是精神的。

所谓的物质水平突破意味着开放规模扩张空间。在空间方面,现金贷款空间是最大的,不受现场影响,可以在任何场景中使用。可以合理地说,无论政策层面的不确定性如何,消费者贷款机构都可以继续发放现金贷款。折腾虚拟信用卡有什么需要?

应该在供需双方都找到动力。

在需求方面,消费者金融已进入买方市场(至少高质量的借款集团是这样的)。合格的借款人可以轻松获得三个或五个平台的信用额度,如果他或她想要使用它。借款人手中。

在供给方面,为了允许信贷前用户提取资金(只有借款人可以提取利息以提供利息),贷款人必须找到一种体验产品体验的方法。让贷款接近支付链接,并将有一个虚拟信用卡模型创新。

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所谓的精神层面突破意味着降低合规风险。新的现金贷款规则明确要求“在没有特定情况且没有指定用途的情况下暂停发布网络小额信贷”。贷款机构的借贷机制是让借款人明确在申请过程中使用(提供诸如旅游,装修,教育,大型消费和其他用途的选择),但实际资金流动是无法控制的,并且指定光的使用有点形式化。

在家庭杠杆率快速上升的背景下,消费者贷款流动尚不清楚,政策层面存在很大的不确定性。监管机构可随时进行干预,以重现新现金贷款规则对现金贷款市场的影响。对于主要消费者贷款机构,虚拟信用卡方法用于将消费贷款与情景捆绑在一起,以确保资金流动是可控的,这在很大程度上消除了这种不确定性并降低了合规风险。

虚拟信用卡模式,概念上一切都很好,但登陆时有障碍。陷入寡头垄断支付模式。

支付市场是“2 + 1 + N”模式,支付宝和微信是两大巨头,加上银联和其他支付机构。这两家巨头都有自己的消费贷款产品。消费贷款机构的合作目标主要是银联的钞票支付,它削减了移动支付方案。但是,手机支付市场份额并不高。

手机支付主要对应NFC支付(不考虑卡代码集成的影响)。根据艾瑞咨询《2018年中国移动NFC支付行业研究报告》,2018年第一季度NFC支付交易量为29.4亿元,比上月增长约60%。根据这一增长率,2018年的年度规模为270亿。它看起来不小,但行业水平仅为1.3%。

在NFC支付中,绝大多数交易都是通过银行信用卡提供的,几乎没有虚拟信用卡的空间。虚拟信用卡模型于2017年首次亮相,并且一直不温不火。原因在于此。作为一种生活方式,不仅仅是增长引擎,而且对市场的影响也是有限的。

最近,有一些好消息。微信支付开始开放与消费贷款产品的合作,但两大巨头的开放程度还有待观察。虚拟信用卡很有可能仍然希望云闪存支付的增长。

不确定

规模的增加可以放慢。在此之前,应该解决虚拟信用卡模型本身的问题。两个不确定因素。

首先,虚拟信用卡是否涉嫌无牌经营信用卡业务?

信用卡是持牌企业。 2011年发布的《商业银行信用卡业务监督管理办法》将信用卡业务定义为:“商业银行使用信用额度和透支功能的银行卡提供银行服务,主要包括发卡和获取服务。”

虚拟信用卡不是信用卡,但具有类似的功能属性,所有这些都涉及银行账户(虚拟信用卡是银行类型2家庭)并且具有透支功能。但是,虚拟信用卡涉及提供信用额度的信用贷款机构和提供基础账户的银行。信用卡的发行机构只是银行方。

虚拟信用卡业务是否是伪装的经营信用卡业务在监管层面存在不确定性。

在产品推广中,消费者贷款机构避免使用“信用卡”一词,或称为虚拟卡,或简称“卡”。 2014年,过去,2014年,蚂蚁金融与微信联合推出了中信银行虚拟信用卡。因为卡从卡中省略,所以它被监督并停止。没有人敢“触摸瓷器”信用卡营销。虚拟信用卡这个术语只是市场的总结。

其次,虚拟信用卡对银行信用卡市场的影响有多大?

从客户群定位,产品利率和无息期设置的角度来看,虚拟信用卡不是银行信用卡的对手。例如,银行信用卡利率定价较低(低于18%),虚拟信用卡定价较高;银行信用卡的免息期为20-50天,虚拟信用卡付款在第一天开始计息。

虚拟信用卡对银行信用卡的影响不在竞争水平,而是在概念层面。虚拟信用卡的本质是消费者贷款曲线获取信用卡的属性,并且不受当前信用卡监管规则的约束。如果银行按原样提取葫芦,而消费者信用卡是如此信用卡,银行(信用卡消费贷款)PK银行(信用卡)将对现有信用卡市场产生重要影响。

例如,城市商业银行遭受了面对面的限制,无法在全国范围内发行信用卡。现在机会已经到来,消费者贷款(在线贷款不需要签署)与二等家庭绑定,鼓励用户将二等家庭绑定到第三方支付工具。消费信用卡被视为贷款,贷款实现。消费贷款的信用卡化也实现了国家伪装信用卡的发行。

消费贷款受到二等家庭的欢迎,因此可以免费面对面签证的二等家庭具有准信用卡的特征。与普通信用卡业务相比,将具有相对竞争优势。这一发展将不可避免地导致现有信用卡市场的重新洗牌。

当时,如果采取监管措施,银行的消费贷款信用卡将被暂停,消费贷款机构的虚拟信用卡模式将不可避免地受到束缚。

辩证

以上分析“不确定性”是根据当前的信用卡操作规则,如信用卡必须由银行发行,必须在信用卡激活前签字,等等。但是,规则被用来打破,这就是创新的意义。一些现行的信用卡规则不一定是最佳选择。

辩证分析在两点进行。

首先,信用卡和信用卡属性。

让我们从信用卡的诞生开始吧。 1949年,美国人弗兰克麦克纳马拉在吃饭时忘记带钱包。该商店依靠老客户的信任,允许他们“先卖,然后再偿还”。受此启发,弗兰克创立了大莱俱乐部,为会员提供证明其支付能力的卡(大莱俱乐部的前身),可用于俱乐部扩展商家的账单。结算工作,这是信用卡的原型。

从商业属性的角度来看,信用卡源于消费过程中的信用问题。从财务属性的角度来看,信用卡可以分为两部分:支付属性(可以直接用于支付)和信用属性(受贷款类别限制)。

From the point of view of disassembly and assembly, credit cards can be disassembled into payment attributes and credit attributes. Conversely, when the payment attribute products and credit attribute products are bundled, the characteristics of credit cards can be expressed, and the virtual loans of the consumer and the second type of households can be integrated. Credit cards are typical.

Consumer finance companies and small loan companies can issue financial products with credit attributes (ie, loans). As long as the law does not prohibit such products from being bundled with payment accounts, the credit card attributes resulting from the bundles cannot be eliminated.

Therefore, at the regulatory level, although it is possible to explicitly require a credit card to be a bank-specific product, it cannot deny the credit card attributes exhibited by different products.

In fact, as far as the credit card issuer is concerned, although the country is issued by the bank by default, in the international context, commercial banks are the mainstream card issuers, and independent companies and industrial groups have always been important card issuers.

Second, the credit card issue.

It is expressly required that "for customers who apply for the Bank's credit card for the first time, they must not use the full system automatic card issuance method to issue credit cards." Therefore, the face-to-face is mandatory and internalized in the credit card business process. In the virtual credit card mode, the face-to-face is not a necessary procedure, which has the concern of regulatory arbitrage. Let the bank credit card business be at a disadvantage in the competition.

In fact, this kind of regulatory arbitrage has existed since the emergence of Internet loans. The same is a credit product. Internet loans can be fully automated online. Credit cards need to be signed. Isn't the credit card at a disadvantage in the competition?

It is necessary to eliminate regulatory arbitrage, but in this case, to eliminate regulatory arbitrage, it should not be mandatory to sign all credit products, but should re-examine the necessity of credit card visas.

xxThe presence of a face-to-face tag can effectively control the risk of fraud. A face-to-face relationship between people is enough to filter out most fraud risks. However, science and technology are advancing, and the anti-fraud ability of financial institutions has made great progress. The maturity of face recognition technology has also provided an alternative solution for face-to-face. The keystone of face-to-face as a means of preventing wind control is loosening a little bit.

In the future, the loosening of financial business visas should be a general trend. By then, the issue of regulatory arbitrage of virtual credit cards (concentrated on the face-to-face) will no longer exist.

Exhibition

At present, all parties are enthusiastic about virtual credit cards: the bank hopes to increase the size of the second-class households, paying the company to regard it as a highly sticky scene, and consumer lending companies want to achieve transformational breakout.

In the short term, in addition to policy risks, this enthusiasm seems unstoppable. In the medium and long term, under the driving force of returning to the consumption scene, the credit card of consumer loans is expected to become a new trend in the industry. As more and more institutions join in, it will reshape the consumer finance landscape and reshape the credit card market.

At present, as a new model, there are still some user experience problems that need to be solved, such as the problem of credit reporting on every consumer transaction. Once access to the payment channel, consumer loans will be used in large-scale trading scenarios. Each transaction corresponds to a loan. Reporting the credit will result in psychological pressure on some borrowers. The loan record in the credit report is too long. Too dense, worried that it will leave a bad impression on the bank that checked the letter (in fact, as long as the normal repayment is no problem).

xx输入一些虚拟信用卡产品,你会发现这两种类型的帖子是最热门的。一个是现金广告横幅,另一个是借款人担心每笔消费者交易。事实上,在这个问题上,业界已经有了一个成熟的解决方案,即信用卡月度账单,并将贷款记录合并报告。例如,苏宁消费者金融公司于2018年3月30日发布公告,称“从2017年8月6日起,我们公司客户产生的贷款将以合并形式报告.每笔贷款不再单一记录记录。显示“。

用户体验可以慢慢改善,市场格局正在缓慢变化。

一切都刚刚开始。

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